A smart card is a plastic card that has a computer chip embedded in it. This chip can be a secure microcontroller, microprocessor or a memory chip alone. The smart cards are used in several key applications like banking, entertainment, healthcare, transportation etc. It has the capabilities of storing and processing the information. A card reader is used to transact this information with computer system. The commands are sent to the smart cards using available terminals, commands are then processed by it and result is given back. The data is protected from unauthorized access which is why it is called smart. The security mechanisms used for protection may include password verification, authentication, biometric identification etc. In India, SCOSTA ( Smart Card Operating System Standard
for Transport Application) is used to define a standard set of commands for smart cards. Originally it was introduced for transport applications (hence the name), now it is used in various government projects like ePassport, Driving License, Vehicle RC etc.